Products using data from Virginia Reservoirs LTREB (since 2014)

Publications: Foundational Knowledge

Birgand, F., K. Aveni-Deforge, B. Smith, M. Horstman, B. Maxwell, A.B. Gerling, and C.C. Carey. 2016. First report of a novel multiplexer pumping system coupled to a water quality probe to collect high temporal frequency in situ water chemistry measurements at multiple sites. Limnology and Oceanography Methods 14:767-783.

Carey, C.C. , J.P. Doubek, R.P. McClure, and P.C. Hanson. 2018. Oxygen dynamics control the burial of organic carbon in a eutrophic reservoir. Limnology and Oceanography Letters 3: 293-301.

Carey, C.C., R.P. McClure, J.P. Doubek, M.E. Lofton, N.K. Ward, D.T. Scott. 2018. Chaoborus spp. Transport CH4 from the Sediments to the Surface Waters of a Eutrophic Reservoir, But Their Contribution to Water Column CH4 Concentrations and Diffusive Efflux Is Minor. Environmental Science and Technology 52: 1165–1173

Carey, C.C., P.C. Hanson, R.Q. Thomas, A.B. Gerling, A.G. Hounshell, A.S. Lewis, M.E. Lofton, R.P. McClure, H.L. Wander, W.M. Woelmer, B.R. Niederlehner, and M.E. Schreiber. 2022. Anoxia decreases the magnitude of the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus sink in freshwaters. Global Change Biology. 28: 4861-4881.

Chen, S., J.C. Little, C.C. Carey, J.P. McClure, M.E. Lofton, and C. Lei. 2018. Three‐Dimensional Effects of Artificial Mixing in a Shallow Drinking‐Water Reservoir. Water Resources Research 54: 425-441

Chen, S., C.C. Carey, J.C. Little, M.E. Lofton, R.P. McClure, and C. Lei. 2018. Effectiveness of a bubble-plume mixing system for managing phytoplankton in lakes and reservoirs. Ecological Engineering 113: 43-51.

Doubek, J.P., K.L. Campbell, K.M. Doubek, K.D. Hamre, M.E. Lofton, R.P. McClure, N.K. Ward, and C.C. Carey. 2018. The effects of hypolimnetic anoxia on the diel vertical migration of freshwater crustacean zooplankton. Ecosphere 9:e02332.

Doubek, J.P., K.L. Campbell, M.E. Lofton, R.P. McClure, and C.C. Carey. 2019 Hypolimnetic hypoxia increases the biomass and compositional variability of crustacean zooplankton communities. Water. 11(10):2179.

Gerling, A.B., Z.W. Munger, J.P. Doubek, K.D. Hamre, P.A. Gantzer, J.C. Little, and C.C. Carey. 2016. Whole-ecosystem manipulations of internal and external loading reveal the sensitivity of a century-old reservoir to hypoxia. Ecosystems 19:555-571.

Gerling, A.B., Browne, R.G., Gantzer, P.A., Mobley, M.H., Little, J.C., and C.C. Carey. 2014. First report of the successful operation of a side stream supersaturation hypolimnetic oxygenation system in a eutrophic, shallow reservoir. Water Research 67:129-143.

Hammond, N.W., F. Birgand, C.C. Carey, B.J. Bookout, A. Breef-Pilz, and M.E. Schreiber. 2023. High-frequency sensor data capture short-term variability in Fe and Mn cycling due to hypolimnetic oxygenation and seasonal dynamics in a drinking water reservoir. Water Research. 240: 120084.

HamreG, K.D., A.B. Gerling, Z.W. Munger, J.P. Doubek, R.P. McClure, K.L. Cottingham, and C.C. Carey. 2017. Spatial variation in dinoflagellate recruitment along a reservoir ecosystem continuum. Journal of Plankton Research 39:715-728.

Hamre, K.D., M.E. Lofton, R.P. McClure, Z.W. Munger, J.P. Doubek, A.B. Gerling, M.E. Schreiber, and C.C. Carey. 2018. In situ fluorometry reveals a persistent, perennial hypolimnetic cyanobacterial bloom in a seasonally anoxic reservoir. Freshwater Science 37: 483-495

Hounshell, A.G., B.M. D’Acunha, A. Breef-Pilz, M.S. Johnson, R.Q. Thomas, and C.C. Carey. 2023. Eddy covariance data reveal that a small freshwater reservoir emits a substantial amount of carbon dioxide and methane. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. 128: e2022JG007091.

Hounshell, A.G., R.P. McClure, M.E. Lofton, and C.C. Carey. 2021. Whole-ecosystem oxygenation experiments reveal substantially greater hypolimnetic methane concentrations and global warming potential in reservoirs during anoxia. Limnology and Oceanography-Letters. 6: 33-42.

Howard, D.W., A.G. Hounshell, M.E. Lofton, W.M. Woelmer, P.C. Hanson, and C.C. Carey. 2021. Variability in fluorescent dissolved organic matter concentrations across diel to seasonal time scales is driven by water temperature and meteorology in a eutrophic reservoir. Aquatic Sciences. 83: 30.

Krueger, K.M., C.E. Vavrus, M.E. Lofton, R.P. McClure, P. Gantzer, C.C. Carey, and M.E. Schreiber. 2020. Iron and manganese fluxes across the sediment-water interface in a drinking water reservoir. Water Research. 182: 116003.

Lewis, A.S.L., M.E. Schreiber, B.R. Niederlehner, A. Das, N.W. Hammond, M.E. Lofton, H.L. Wander, and C.C. Carey. 2023. Effects of hypoxia on coupled carbon and iron cycling differ between weekly and multiannual timescales in two freshwater reservoirs. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 128: e2022JG007071.

Lewis, A.S.L , A. Breef-Pilz, D. Howard, M.E. Lofton, F. Olsson, H.L. Wander, C.E. Wood, M. Schreiber, C.C. Carey. Reservoir drawdown highlights the emergent effects of water level change on reservoir physics, chemistry, and biology. JGR Biogeosciences 129: e2023JG007780.

Lofton, M.E., D.W. Howard, R.P. McClure, H.L. Wander, W.M. Woelmer, A.G. Hounshell, A.S. Lewis, and C.C. Carey. 2022. Experimental thermocline deepening alters vertical distribution and community structure of phytoplankton in a four-year whole-reservoir manipulation. Freshwater Biology. 67: 1903-1924.

Lofton, M.E., R.P. McClure, S. Chen, J.C. Little, and C.C. Carey. 2019. Whole-ecosystem experiments reveal varying responses of phytoplankton functional groups to epilimnetic mixing in a eutrophic reservoir. Water. 11(2):222.

McClure, R.P., K.D. Hamre, B.R. Niederlehner, Z.W. Munger, S. Chen, M.E. Lofton, M.E. Schreiber, and C.C. Carey. 2018. Metalimnetic oxygen minimum zones decouple CH4 and CO2 fluxes from seasonal turnover. Science of the Total Environment. 636:610-620.

McClure, R.P., M.E. Schreiber, M.E. Lofton, S. Chen, K.M. Krueger, and C.C. Carey. 2021. Ecosystem-scale oxygen manipulations alter terminal electron acceptor pathways in a eutrophic reservoir. Ecosystems. 24: 1281–1298.

McClure, R.P., M.E. Lofton, S. Chen, J.C. Little, and C.C. Carey. 2020. The magnitude and drivers of methane ebullition and diffusion vary on a longitudinal gradient in a small freshwater reservoir. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. 125(3): e2019JG005205

Munger, Z.W., C.C. Carey, A.B. Gerling, K.D. Hamre, J.P. Doubek, S.D. Klepatzki, R.P. McClure, and M.E. Schreiber. 2016. Effectiveness of hypolimnetic oxygenation for preventing accumulation of Fe and Mn in a drinking water reservoir. Water Research 106: 1-14.

Munger, Z.W., C.C. Carey, A.B. Gerling, J.P. Doubek, K.D. Hamre, R.P. McClure, M.E. Schreiber. 2019. Oxygenation and hydrologic controls on iron and manganese mass budgets in a drinking water reservoir. Lake and Reservoir Management. 35:277-291.

Wander, H.L.G, A.S. Lewis, D.W. Howard, M.E. Lofton, W.M. Woelmer, B.L. Brown, and C.C. Carey. 2024. Zooplankton community structure and diel migration patterns vary over hours, days, and years in the pelagic and littoral zone of a eutrophic reservoir. Journal of Plankton Research

Woelmer, W.M., A.G. Hounshell, M.E. Lofton, H.L. Wander, A.S.L. Lewis, D. Scott, and C.C. Carey. 2023. The importance of time and space in biogeochemical heterogeneity and processing along the reservoir ecosystem continuum. Aquatic Sciences. 85: 66.

Publications: Forecasting and modeling

Carey, C.C., W.M. Woelmer, M.E. Lofton, R.J. Figueiredo, B.J. Bookout, R.S. Corrigan, V. Daneshmand, A.G. Hounshell, D.W. Howard, A.S.L. Lewis, R.P. McClure, H.L. Wander, N.K. Ward, and R.Q. Thomas. 2022. Advancing lake and reservoir water quality management with near-term, iterative ecological forecasting. Inland Waters. 12: 107-120.

Chen, S., C. Lei, C.C. Carey, P.A. Gantzer, and J.C. Little. 2017. Predicting hypolimnetic oxygenation and epilimnetic mixing in a shallow eutrophic reservoir using a coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Water Resources Research 53: 470-484.

Chen, S. C. Lei, C.C. Carey and J.C. Little. 2016. Modelling the effect of artificial mixing on thermal stability and substance transport in a drinking-water reservoir using a 3D hydrodynamic model. Proceedings of the 20th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference Perth, Australia, 5-8 December 2016. PDF

Chen, S., C. Lei, C.C. Carey and J.C. Little. 2016. Predicting the performance of an epilimnetic bubble-plume mixer in a shallow reservoir using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Proceedings of the Australasian Heat and Mass Transfer Conference. Brisbane, Australia, July 2016. PDF

Daneshmand, V., A. Breef-Pilz, C.C. Carey, Y. Jin, Y.-J. Ku, K. Subratie, R.Q. Thomas, and R. J. Figueiredo. 2021. Edge-to-cloud virtualized cyberinfrastructure for near real-time water quality forecasting in lakes and reservoirs. 17th IEEE eScience Conference. Innsbruck, Austria.

Daw, A., R.Q. Thomas, C.C. Carey, J.S. Read, A.P. Appling, and A. Karpatne. 2020. Physics-guided architecture (PGA) of neural networks for quantifying uncertainty in lake temperature modeling. Proceedings of the 2020 SIAM International Conference on Data Mining. 532-540.

Kurucz, K., C.C. Carey, P. Huang, E.R. De Sousa, J. White, M.R. Hipsey. Using System-Inspired Metrics to Improve Water Quality Prediction in Stratified Lakes. ESS Open Archive.

Man, X, C. Lei, C.C. Carey, and J.C. Little. 2021. Relative performance of 1-D versus 3-D hydrodynamic, water-quality models for predicting water temperature and oxygen in a shallow, eutrophic, managed reservoir. Water. 13(1), 88.

McClure, R.P., R.Q. Thomas, M.E. Lofton, W.M. Woelmer, and C.C. Carey. 2021. Iterative forecasting improves near-term predictions of methane ebullition rates. Frontiers in Environmental Science. 9: 756603.

Olsson, F, T.N. Moore, C.C. Carey, A. Breef-Pilz, and R.Q. Thomas. A multi-model ensemble of baseline and process-based models improves the predictive skill of near-term lake forecasts. Accepted at Water Resources Research 60: e2023WR035901

Thomas, R.Q, R.J. Figueiredo, V. Daneshmand, B.J. Bookout, L. Puckett, and C.C. Carey. 2020. A near-term iterative forecasting system successfully predicts reservoir hydrodynamics and partitions uncertainty. Water Resources Research. 56, e2019WR026138.

Wander, H.L., R.Q Thomas, T.N. Moore, M.E. Lofton, A. Breef-Pilz, C.C. Carey. Data assimilation experiments inform monitoring needs for near-term ecological forecasts in a eutrophic reservoir. Ecosphere 15: e4752.

Woelmer, W.W., R.Q. Thomas, M.E. Lofton, R.P. McClure, and C.C. Carey. 2022. Near-term phytoplankton forecasts reveal the effects of model time step and forecast horizon on predictability. Ecological Applications. 32: e2642.

Publications: Synthesis

Carey, C.C. 2023. Causes and consequences of changing oxygen in lakes. Inland Waters 3: 316-326

Doubek, J.P., and C.C. Carey. 2017. Catchment, morphometric, and water quality characteristics differ between reservoirs and naturally formed lakes on a latitudinal gradient in the conterminous United States. Inland Waters 7:171-180.

Figary, S.E. and 135 co-authors (ZIG participants), including C.C. Carey, H.L. Wander, and J.P. Doubek. 2022. Building a worldwide freshwater zooplankton dataset to synthesize patterns of zooplankton community structure and change. L&O Bulletin. 31(4): 132-133.

Leach, T.H.. B.E. Beisner, C.C. Carey, P. Pernica, K.C. Rose, Y. Huot, J.A. Brentrup, I. Domaizon, H‐P. Grossart, B.W. Ibelings, S. Jacquet, P.T. Kelly, J.A. Rusak, J.D. Stockwell, D. Straile, and P. Verburg. 2018. Patterns and drivers of deep chlorophyll maxima structure in 100 lakes: The relative importance of light and thermal stratification. Limnology and Oceanography 63: 628-646

Lewis, A.S.L., M.P. Lau, S.F. Jane, K.C. Rose, Y. Be’eri-Shlevin, S.H. Burnet, F. Clayer, H. Feuchtmayr, H.-P. Grossart, D.W. HowardG, H. Mariash, J.D. Martin, R.L. North, I. Oleksy, R.M. Pilla, A.P. Smagula, R. Sommaruga, S.E. Steiner, P. Verburg, D. Wain, G.A. Weyhenmeyer, and C.C. Carey. 2024. Anoxia begets anoxia: a positive feedback to the deoxygenation of temperate lakes. Global Change Biology 30: e17046.

Hampton, S.E., A.W.E. Galloway, S.M. Powers, T. Ozersky, K.H. Woo, R.D. Batt, S.G. Laboo, C.M. O’Reilly, S. Sharma, N.R. Lottig, E.H. Stanley, R.L. North, J.D. Stockwell, R. Adrian, G.A. Weyhenmeyer, L. Arvola, H.M. Baulch, I. Bertani, L.L. Bowman, C.C. Carey, J. Catalan, W. Colom-Montero, L.M. Domine, M. Felip, I. Granados, C. Gries, H.-P. Grossart, J. Haberman, M. Haldna, B. Hayden, S.N. Higgins, J.C. Jolly, K.K. Kahilainen, E. Kaup, M.J. Kehoe, S. MacIntyre, A.W. Mackay, H.L. Mariash, R. M. McKay, B. Nixdorf, P. Noges, T. Noges, M. Palmer, D.C. Pierson, D.M. Post, M.J. Pruett, M. Rautio, J.S. Read, S.L. Roberts, J. Rucker, S. Sadro, E.A. Silow, D.E. Smith, R.W. Sterner, G.E.A. Swann, M.A. Timofeyev, M. Toro, M.R. Twiss, R.G. Vogt, S.B. Watson, E.J. Whiteford, and M.A. Xenopoulos. 2017. Ecology under lake ice. Ecology Letters 20:98-111.

Marcé, R., L. Gómez-Gener, and C.C. Carey. 2024. Chapter 11 - Oxygen. In Eds. I.D. Jones and J.P. Smol, Wetzel’s Limnology (Fourth Edition). Pages 237-274.

Weyhenmeyer, G.A., U. Obertegger, H. Rudebeck, E. Jakobsson, J. Jansen, G. Zdorovennova, S. Bansal, B.D. Block, C.C. Carey, J.P. Doubek, H. Dugan, O. Erina, I. Fedorova, J.M. Fischer, L. Grinberga, H.-P. Grossart, K. Kangur, L.B. Knoll, A. Laas, F. Lepori, J. Meier, N. Palshin, M. Peternell, M. Pulkkanen, J.A. Rusak, S. Sharma, D. Wain, and R. Zdorovennov. 2022. Towards critical white ice conditions in lakes under global warming. Nature Communications. 13: 4974.

Other products

Falling Creek Reservoir is used as a test-bed and evaluation site for the development of the General Lake Model.